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In surveying the measurements are taken in horizontal plane, but in leveling they are taken in the vertical plane.
In Plane surveying, the curvature of the earth is not considered. But in Geodetic surveying, the curvature of the earth is considered.
A map which shows the natural features of a country such as rivers, hills, roads, railways, villages, towns, etc. is known as topographical map, and one which shows the boundaries of estates, fields, houses, etc. is known as a cadastral map.
The fundamental principle of surveying is to work from the whole to the part.
In order to fold the chain, a chainman moves forward by pulling the chain at the middle so that two halves come side by side. Then he places the pair of links on his left hand with his right hand until the two brass handles appear at the top.
To unfold the chain: A chain man holds the two brass handles in his left hand and throws the bunch with his right hand. Then one chain man stands at a station holding one handle and another chainman moves forward by holding the other handle.
The chain man at the forward end of the chain who drags the chain is known as the leader and the one at the rear end of the chain is known as the follower.
The stepping method.
The ranging is to be done by the reciprocal method.
The tension at which the measured distance is equal to the correct distance (i.e; when sag correction is neutralized by pull correction) is known as normal tension.
The ratio of the distance on the drawing to the corresponding actual length of the object is known as RF.
The plain scale represents two successive units. The diagonal scale represents three successive units.
When one chain length is measured on slopping ground then it shows a shorter distance on the horizontal distance is known as the hypotenusal allowance.
At least three ranging rods required for direct ranging and at least four for indirect ranging.
The 20m chain is divided in to 100 links. So, one link is 0.2m. i.e; 20cm. long.
The Principle of chain surveying is triangulation.
The method of dividing an area into a number of triangles is known as triangulation.
The triangle is preferred just it is a simple figure which can be drawn by just knowing the lengths of its sides.
The apex point of an ill conditioned triangle is not well defined and sharp. This may cause some confusion while marking the actual point correctly on the map.
The preliminary inspection of the area to be surveyed is known as reconnaissance survey.
During reconnaissance survey a neat hand sketch is prepared showing the frame work of the survey. This sketch is known as index sketch.
Base line is the back bone of the survey. The frame work of the survey is prepared on this line.
The north line of the chain survey map is fixed by taking the magnetic bearings of the base line by prismatic compass.
In chain survey, whole area is to be divided into a number of triangles. But the formation of triangles is not possible in a crowded area. So I would reject the proposal.
The maximum length of the offset should be within the length of the tape used. Generally it should not be more than 15m.
The station is marked on the ground by a wooden peg and with a cross on the station point.
If the station peg is removed by some one the station can be located accurately with the help of measurements shown in reference sketch.
By forming triangle in the ratio 3:4:5 using the chain and tape.
The chain man at the forward end of the chain who drags the chain is known as the leader. The one at the rear end of the chain is known as the follower.
If the field book is opened lengthwise, it becomes easy to maintain the continuation of a chain line.
The paper on which the map is drawn may shrink or expand due to various reasons. If the scale is plotted on the map, then it is also reduced or enlarged proportionately. So the distance on the map measured by this scale remains unaltered.
Tallies are provided in a chain for the facility to counting some fractional length of the chain, when the full chain length is not required.
An equilateral triangle is said to be ideal.