Dear Readers, Welcome to Pathophysiology Objective Questions and Answers have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your Job interview for the subject of Pathophysiology Multiple choice Questions. These Objective type Pathophysiology Questions are very important for campus placement test and job interviews. As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular question during your Job interview and these model questions are asked in the online technical test and interview of many Medical Industry.
A. Dura, Pia, CSF
B. Arachnoid, Pia, Blood
C. Pia, Arachnoid, CSF
D. Dura, Arachnoid, CSF
A. Inflammation of the Pia
B. Usually a consequence of traumatic brain injury.
C. The arachnoid acts as a barrier to infection.
D. The inflammation is restricted to the outer surface of the brain.
A. E. Coli and Group B strep are most commonly found in neonates with bacterial meningitis
B. Group A strep and H. Pylori are most commonly found in adolescents with bacterial meningitis.
C. H. influenza is usually fuond in infants 3 months-3 years old with bacterial meningitis.
D. Strep pneumococcus is usually found in adults with bacterial meningitis.
E. N. meningitidis is usually found in military barracks when bacterial meningitis is going around.
A. PMN's in the CSF
B. PMN's in the blood
C. RBC's in the CSF
D. Purulent discharge in the ears
E. Elevated white count
A. pia, creamy or white
B. arachnoid, yellow or purulent
C. Arachnoid, creamy or white
D. Dura, Yellow or purulent
E. Arachnoid, grey or cloudy
A. Head ache
B. Convulsions in adults
D. If untreated, coma and death
A. Cervical rigidity
B. Kernig sign
C. Head retraction
D. Murphy's sign
E. Brudzinski sign
A. Bacterial Meningitis
B. Alzheimers Disease
C. Viral Meningitis
D. Multiple Sclerosis
E. Parkinsons Disease
A. Most commonly occurs in white males
B. Typically effects those in the 6th-8th decade of their life.
C. Genetic factors do not play a role (except for a rare autosomal dominant disorder)
D. The vast majority of cases are idiopathic.
E. The disease has been recorded after viral encephalitis and after the intake of a toxic chemical (MPTP. )
A. Brain stem, sympathetic chain, adrenergic
B. Cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, muscarinic
C. Substantia Nigra, basal ganglia, dopaminergic
D. Prefrontal cortex, afferent neurons, cholinergic
E. Medulla oblongota, efferent neurons, achetylcholinestergic
A. Bacterial meningitis
B. Acute hepatitis
E. von Economo Encephalitis
A. Loss of pigmentation in the substantia nigra
B. Residual atrophic nerve cells are seen known as "Hewey Bodies"
C. Pigmented neurons are scarce with small extracellular deposits of melanin, from necrotic neurons.
D. Loss of pigmentation in the Locus Ceruleus
A. Hepatic vein
B. Hepatic artery
C. Portal artery
D. Portal vein
A. Spider bites (black widow, tunnel spider)
B. Drugs (Phenothiazines, Haldol)
C. Poison (Carbon monoxide, Manganese)
E. Tumors (Near the basal ganglia)
A. Parkinson's disease
B. Age-related psychosis
C. Alzheimers Disease
D. Multiple Sclerosis
E. Acute Hemorrhagic Meningitis
A. Advances of our pathologic understanding of AD relate to alpha-protein amyloid deposition in senile plaques.
B. Plaques located in the spinal cord are linked to intelectual funciton and are a constant feature of AD
C. Beta protein amyloid is found in the walls of the cerebral vessels may be the origin of deposits found in the brain in AD.
D. The pathogenisis of AD is fully understood
E. World wide, AD is the least common cause of dementia in the elderly, accounting for less than half of all the cases.
A. Pleated, macrotubule-associated, lipid
B. Helical, microtubule-associated, axonal
C. Round, cytoskeletal-associated, active
D. Helical, macrotubule-associated, lipid
A. Loss of neurons and neuritic processes
B. Narrow gyri
C. Widened sulci
D. Unilateral cortical atrophy
E. Atrophy in frontal, parietal, temporal, and hippocampal cortices.
A. Lewy Bodies
B. Neurofibrillary tangles
C. Signet ring cells
D. Hewey Bodies
E. Senile (neuritic) plaques
C. Pathologic examination of vessels in the brain
D. Pathologic examination of brain tissue
A. Multiple Sclerosis
B. Alzheimers Disease
C. Parkinson's Disease
D. Viral meningitis
A. A chronic demyelinating disease of the CNS
B. Characterized by numerous patches of demyelination througout the grey matter
C. It is the most common demyelinating disorder (prevelence 1 in 1000)
D. Disease effects both sensory and motor functions
E. Characterized by exacerbations and remissions over a period of years.
A. Tropical climates
B. Most common in 40 year olds (uncommon before 14 and after 60 y.o).
C. Women afflicted twice as often as men
D. Possibly other infectious, genetic, and infectious etiology
A. A familial aggregation of the disease with an increased risk in 1st degree relatives.
B. Dizygotic twins show a 25% concordance for MS (2% for monozygotic)
C. Immune factors related to perivascular lymphocytes and macrophages with numerous CD4+, CD8+, and t-cells
D. Direct evidence exists for the involvement of certain viruses including mumps, rubella, herpes, and measles.
E. JC virus has recently been studied, due to its role in preventing demyelination in the CNS.
A. The plaque is the hallmark of the disease
B. Usually situated in the white matter, but occassionaly breech the gray-white junction
C. Exhibit a preference for the optic nerves and chiasm and uniformly localizes in to the periventricular white matter.
D. Can also involve the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord.
E. Usually 2-4 mm in size with a jagged, irregular contour
A. Histologically, there is a selective loss of myelin in a region of axonal preservation.
B. Perivascular inflammation lymophocytes and macrophages with focal edema.
C. Astrocytes traverse the aging plaque and the tissue becomes dense with glial processes.
D. As the plaque ages, it becomes less discrete and the edema progresses.
A. Optic nerves
B. Brain Stem
C. Prefrontal cortex
D. Spinal cord
E. Basal ganglia
A. Alzheimers Disease
B. Viral Meningitis
C. Bacterial Meningitis
D. Multiple Sclerosis
E. Myesthenia Gravis
A. A lesion at the optic nerve
B. A plaque in the brain stem
C. A plaque within the spinal cord
D. A lesion at the substantia nigra
E. A plaque within the basal ganglia
A. Widespread paralysis
B. Severe nausea and vomiting
D. Severe visual defects
E. Incontincence and dementia
A. Renal failure
B. Hepatic failure
C. Diabetes Mellitus
D. Salivary glands
D. Peritoneal abscess
A. Bones and teeth
B. Blood coagulation
C. Cardiac and Nerve conduction
D. GI stimulation (peristalis.
E. Muscle contraction
B. Vitamin D
C. Vitamin A
A. Renal failure
C. Muscle cramps and tetany
C. Rheumatoid arthritis
D. Bone Cancer
A. Gout, gallstones
B. Paranychia, appendicitis
C. Gout, kidney stones
D. Paranychia, kidney stones
A. Blood flow.
C. Alveolar PCO2.
D. Alveolar size.
E. Capillary blood volume.
A. PCO2 of mixed venous blood.
B. Alveolar ventilation.
C. Tidal volume.
D. Heart rate.
E. Cardiac output.
A. That caused by ?1-antitrypsin deficiency.
B. Centriacinar emphysema.
C. Panacinar emphysema.
D. Paraseptal emphysema.
E. Unilateral emphysema.
A. Damage to pulmonary capillaries by increased alveolar pressure.
B. Chronic stimulation of bronchial mucous glands by cigarette smoking.
C. Destruction of lung elastin by excessive action of neutrophil elastase.
D. Excessive amounts of exercise.
E. Hyperventilation at high altitude.
A. Causes severe bronchitis with emphysema.
B. Results in emphysema at a relatively early age.
C. Is caused by infections in early childhood.
D. Is common in heterozygotes for the Z gene.
E. Tends to be most marked in the upper regions of the lung.
A. More cough productive of sputum.
B. Smaller lung volumes.
C. Decreased lung elastic recoil.
D. More hypoxemia.
E. Greater tendency to develop cor pulmonale.
E. None of the above.
B. Diffusion impairment.
C. Ventilation–perfusion inequality.
E. Abnormal hemoglobin.
B. FEV/FVC %
A. ?1-selective agonists are preferred to ?2 agonists.
B. They relax airway smooth muscle by decreasing the concentration of adenyl cyclase.
C. They reduce the concentration of intracellular cAMP.
D. They reduce airway inflammation.
E. They are usually given as tablets by mouth.
A. Provides most of the structural SPport for the normal alveolar wall.
B. Cannot multiply.
C. Is formed when a type I epithelial cell divides.
D. Secretes surfactant.
E. Is metabolically inactive.
A. Infiltration of the alveolar wall with lymphocytes and plasma cells.
B. Breakdown of many alveolar walls.
C. Mucous gland hypertrophy in the bronchi.
D. Mucous plugging of airways.
E. Increased volume of the pulmonary capillary bed.
A. Cough productive of copious sputum.
C. Rhonchi in both lungs.
D. Dyspnea especially on exercise.
E. Depressed diaphragms on the radiograph.
A. Increased FEV1.
B. Increased FVC.
C. Increased FEV1/FVC %.
D. Increased TLC.
E. Increased airway resistance when related to lung volume.
A. Typically worsens on exercise.
B. Is chiefly caused by diffusion impairment.
C. Is associated with a large increase in diffusing capacity during exercise.
D. Is usually associated with carbon dioxide retention.
E. Is improved during exercise because of the abnormally large increase in cardiac output.
A. Expiratory muscles have a large mechanical advantage.
B. Airways have a small diameter.
C. Dynamic compression of the airways is more likely than in a normal subject.
D. Radial traction on the airways is increased.
E. Airway resistance is increased.
A. Is typically substantially increased.
B. Shows an abnormally large increase during exercise.
C. Is unaffected by thickening of the blood-gas barrier.
D. Is reduced in part because of obliteration of pulmonary capillaries.
E. Falls only late in the disease.
A. It reduces the volume of the chest wall on the affected side.
B. It causes an increased blood flow in the affected lung.
C. When present in the tension form it is a medical emergency.
D. Spontaneous pneumothorax is mainly seen in older women.
E. The FVC is increased
A. Increased permeability of the alveolar epithelial cells.
B. Reduced capillary hydrostatic pressure.
C. Reduced colloid osmotic pressure of the blood.
D. Increased hydrostatic pressure in the interstitial space.
E. Reduced colloid osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
A.Fluid can drain through the interstitium of the thick side of the blood-gas barrier.
B. The alveolar epithelium has a high permeability for water.
C. The strength of the barrier on the thin side is mainly attributable to the endothelial cells.
D. No protein normally crosses the capillary endothelium.
E. Water is actively transported into the alveolar spaces by alveolar epithelial cells.
A. Fluid tracks through the interstitium of the thin side of the blood Gas barrier to the perivascular and peribronchial spaces.
B. There is no increase in lung lymph flow.
C. Fluid floods the alveoli one by one.
D. The hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium probably falls.
E. Cuffs of fluid collect around the small arteries and veins.