ASP.Net Interview Questions & Answers

Posted On:December 15, 2018, Posted By: Latest Interview Questions, Views: 242, Rating :

ASP.Net Interview Questions and Answers

Dear Readers, Welcome to ASP.Net Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your Job interview for the subject of ASP.Net. These ASP.Net Questions are very important for campus placement test and job interviews. As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular questions during your Job interview and these model questions are asked in the online technical test and interview of many IT companies.

1. What is the CLR?

CLR = Common Language Runtime. The CLR is a set of standard resources that (in theory) any .NET program can take advantage of, regardless of programming language. Many .NET framework classes Development, debugging, and profiling tools Execution and code management  IL-to-native translators and optimizers What this means is that in the .NET world, different programming languages will be more equal in capability than they have ever been before, although clearly not all languages will support all CLR services.

 Interview Questions on ASP.Net

2. What is the CTS?

CTS = Common Type System. This is the range of types that the .NET runtime understands, and therefore that .NET applications can use. However note that not all .NET languages will support all the types in the CTS. The CTS is a superset of the CLS.

 

3. What is the CLS?

CLS = Common Language Specification. This is a subset of the CTS which all .NET languages are expected to support. The idea is that any program which uses CLS-compliant types can interoperate with any .NET program written in any language.

In theory this allows very tight interop between different .NET languages - for example allowing a C# class to inherit from a VB class.

 

4. What is IL?

IL = Intermediate Language. Also known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) or CIL (Common Intermediate Language). All .NET source code (of any language) is compiled to IL. The IL is then converted to machine code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler.

 

5. What does 'managed' mean in the .NET context?

The term 'managed' is the cause of much confusion. It is used in various places within .NET, meaning slightly different things.Managed code: The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example 

exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime. 

Such code is called managed code. All C# and Visual Basic.NET code is managed by default. VS7 C++ code is not managed by default, but the compiler can produce managed code by specifying a command-line switch (/com+).

Managed data: This is data that is allocated and de-allocated by the .NET runtime's garbage collector. C# and VB.NET data is always managed. VS7 C++ data is unmanaged by default, even when using the /com+ switch, but it can be marked as managed using the __gc keyword.Managed classes: This is usually referred to in the context of Managed Extensions (ME) for C++. When using ME C++, a class can be marked with the __gc keyword. As the name suggests, this means that the memory for instances of the class is managed by the garbage collector, but it also means more than that. The class becomes a fully paid-up member of the .NET community with the benefits and restrictions that brings. An example of a benefit is proper interop with classes written in other languages - for example, a managed C++ class can inherit from a VB class. An example of a restriction is that a managed class can only inherit from one base class.

 

6. What is reflection?

All .NET compilers produce metadata about the types defined in the modules they produce. This metadata is packaged along with the module (modules in turn are packaged together in assemblies), and can be accessed by a mechanism called reflection. The System.Reflection namespace contains classes that can be used to interrogate the types for a module/assembly. 

Using reflection to access .NET metadata is very similar to using ITypeLib/ITypeInfo to access type library data in COM, and it is used for similar purposes - e.g. determining data type sizes for marshaling data across context/process/machine boundaries.

Reflection can also be used to dynamically invoke methods (see System.Type.InvokeMember ) ,  or even create types dynamically at run-time (see System.Reflection.Emit.TypeBuilder). 

 

7. What is the difference between Finalize and Dispose (Garbage collection) ?

Class instances often encapsulate control over resources that are not managed by the runtime, such as window handles (HWND), database connections, and so on. Therefore, you should provide both an explicit and an implicit way to free those resources. Provide implicit control by implementing the protected Finalize Method on an object (destructor syntax in C# and the Managed Extensions for C++). The garbage collector calls this method at some point after there are no longer any valid references to the object. In some cases, you might want to provide programmers using an object with the ability to explicitly release these external resources before the garbage collector frees the object. If an external resource is scarce or expensive, better performance can be achieved if the programmer explicitly releases resources when they are no longer being used. To provide explicit control, implement the Dispose method provided by the IDisposable Interface. The consumer of the object should call this method when it is done using the object. 

Dispose can be called even if other references to the object are alive. Note that even when you provide explicit control by way of Dispose, you should provide implicit cleanup using the Finalize method. Finalize provides a backup to prevent resources from permanently leaking if the programmer fails to call Dispose.

 

8. What is Partial Assembly References?

Full Assembly reference: A full assembly reference includes the assembly's text name, version, culture, and public key token (if the assembly has a strong name). A full assembly reference is required if you reference any assembly that is part of the common language runtime or any assembly located in the global assembly cache.

 

9. Changes to which portion of version number indicates an incompatible change? 

Major or minor. Changes to the major or minor portion of the version number indicate an incompatible change. Under this convention then, version 2.0.0.0 would be considered incompatible with version 1.0.0.0. Examples of an incompatible change would be a change to the types of some method parameters or the removal of a type or method altogether. Build. The Build number is typically used to distinguish between daily builds or smaller compatible releases. Revision. Changes to the revision number are typically reserved for an incremental build needed to fix a particular bug. You'll sometimes hear this referred to as the "emergency bug fix" number in that the revision is what is often changed when a fix to a specific bug is shipped to a customer.

 

10. How to set the debug mode?

Debug Mode for ASP.NET applications - To set ASP.NET appplication in debugging mode, edit the application's web.config and assign the "debug" attribute in < compilation > section to "true" as show below:

< configuration >

  < system.web >

    < compilation defaultLanguage="vb" debug="true" / >

....

...

..

< / configuration >

This case-sensitive attribute 'debug tells ASP.NET to generate symbols for dynamically generated files and enables the

debugger to attach to the ASP.NET application. ASP.NET will detect this change automatically, without the need to restart the server. Debug Mode for ASP.NET Webservices - Debugging an XML Web service created with ASP.NET is similar to the debugging an ASP.NET Web application.

 

11. What is managed and unmanaged code? 

The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime. i.e., code executing under the control of the CLR is called managed code. For example, any code written in C# or Visual Basic .NET is managed code. Code that runs outside the CLR is referred to as "unmanaged code." COM components, ActiveX components, and Win32 API functions are examples of unmanaged code.

 

12. Describe the advantages of writing a managed code application instead of unmanaged one. What's involved in certain piece of code being managed? 

"Advantage includes automatic garbage collection,memory management,security,type checking,versioning

Managed code is compiled for the .NET run-time environment. It runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is the heart of the .NET Framework. The CLR provides services such as security,

memory management, and cross-language integration. Managed applications written to take advantage of the features of the CLR perform more efficiently and safely, and take better advantage of developers existing expertise in languages that support the .NET Framework. 

Unmanaged code includes all code written before the .NET Framework was introduced—this includes code written to use COM, native Win32, and Visual Basic 6. Because it does not run inside the .NET environment, unmanaged code cannot make use of any .NET managed facilities."

 

13. What is Boxing and UnBoxing? 

Boxing is implicit conversion of ValueTypes to Reference Types (Object). UnBoxing is explicit conversion of Reference Types (Object) to its equivalent ValueTypes. It requires type-casting.

 

14. What is the sequence of operation takes place when a page is loaded?

BeginTranaction  - only if the request is transacted

Init    - every time a page is processed

LoadViewState  - Only on postback

ProcessPostData1  - Only on postback

Load    - every time

ProcessData2   - Only on Postback

RaiseChangedEvent  - Only on Postback

RaisePostBackEvent  - Only on Postback

PreRender   - everytime

BuildTraceTree  - only if tracing is enabled

SaveViewState  - every time

Render   - Everytime

End Transaction  - only if the request is transacted

Trace.EndRequest  - only when tracing is enabled

UnloadRecursive  - Every request 

 

15. What are the different types of assemblies available and their purpose? 

Private, Public/shared and Satellite Assemblies.

Private Assemblies : Assembly used within an application is known as private assemblies.

Public/shared Assemblies : Assembly which can be shared across applicaiton is known as shared assemblies. Strong Name has to be created to create a shared assembly. This can be done using SN.EXE. The same has to be registered using GACUtil.exe (Global Assembly Cache). 

Satellite Assemblies : These assemblies contain resource files pertaining to a locale (Culture+Language). These assemblies are used in deploying an Gloabl applicaiton for different languages.


16. What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?

Server.Transfer() : client is shown as it is on the requesting page only, but the all the content is of the requested page. Data can be persist accros the pages using Context.Item collection, which is one of the best way to transfer data from one page to another keeping the page state alive. 

Response.Dedirect() : client know the physical location (page name and query string as well). Context.Items loses the persisitance when nevigate to destination page. In earlier versions of IIS, if we wanted to send a user to a new Web page, the only option we had was Response.Redirect. While this method does accomplish our goal, it has several important drawbacks. The biggest problem is that this method causes each page to be treated as a separate transaction. Besides making it difficult to maintain your transactional integrity, Response.Redirect introduces some additional headaches. First, it prevents good encapsulation of code. Second, you lose access to all of the properties in the Request object. Sure, there are workarounds, but they're difficult. Finally, Response.Redirect necessitates a round trip to the client, which, on high-volume sites, causes 7scalability problems. As you might suspect, Server.Transfer fixes all of these problems. It does this by performing the transfer on the server without requiring a roundtrip to the client.

 

17.Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll and aspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process ?

inetinfo.exe is the Microsoft IIS server running, handling ASP.NET requests among other things. When an ASP.NET request is received (usually a file with .aspx extension), the ISAPI filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the request to the actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.


18. Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?

System.Web.UI.Page.Culture 

 

19. Describe the difference between inline and code behind.

Inline code written along side the html in a page. Code-behind is code written in a separate file and referenced by the .aspx page. 

 

20. What is different b/w  webconfig.xml & Machineconfig.xml

Web.config & machine.config both are configuration files.Web.config contains settings specific to an application where as machine.config contains settings to a computer. The Configuration system first searches settings in machine.config file & then looks in application configuration  files.Web.config, can appear in multiple directories on an ASP.NET Web application server. Each Web.config file applies configuration settings to its own directory and all child directories below it. There is only Machine.config file on a web server.

If I'm developing an application that must accomodate multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web appplication is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robbin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users?

Use the state server or store the state in the database. This can be easily done through simple setting change in the web.config. 

<SESSIONSTATE 

StateConnectionString="tcpip=127.0.0.1:42424" 

sqlConnectionString="data source=127.0.0.1; user id=sa; password=" 

cookieless="false" 

timeout="30" 

/> 

You can specify mode as “stateserver” or “sqlserver”.

Where would you use an iHTTPModule, and what are the limitations of any approach you might take in implementing one

"One of ASP.NET's most useful features is the extensibility of the HTTP pipeline, the path that data takes between client and server. You can use them to extend your ASP.NET applications by adding pre- and post-processing to each HTTP request coming into your application. For example, if you wanted custom authentication facilities for your application, the best technique would be to intercept the request when it comes in and process the request in a custom HTTP module.

 

21. How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? 

Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

 

22. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? 

An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. 

 

23. What is a satellite assembly? 

When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

 

24. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? 

System.Globalization and System.Resources.

 

25. What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?

an Assembly.

 

26. When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?

As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector.  However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory.  However, this is usually not a good practice.

 

27. How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?

Use Boxing.

 

28. What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?

Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap.  Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack

 

29. Describe the difference between a Thread and a Process?

A Process is an instance of an running application. And a thread is the Execution stream of the Process. A process can have multiple Thread.

When a process starts a specific memory area is allocated to it. When there is multiple thread in a process, each thread gets a memory for storing the variables in it and plus they can access to the global variables which is common for all the thread. Eg.A Microsoft Word is a Application. When you open a word file,an instance of the Word starts and a process is allocated to this instance which has one thread.

 

30. What is the difference between an EXE and a DLL? 

You can create an objects of Dll but not of the EXE.

Dll is an In-Process Component whereas EXE is an OUt-Process Component.Exe is for single use whereas you can use Dll for multiple use.

Exe can be started as standalone where dll cannot be.

 

31. What is strong-typing versus weak-typing? Which is preferred? Why?

Strong typing implies that the types of variables involved in operations are associated to the variable, checked at compile-time, and require explicit conversion; weak typing implies that they are associated to the value, checked at run-time, and are implicitly converted as required. (Which is preferred is a disputable point, but I personally prefer strong typing because I like my errors to be found as soon as possible.)

 

32. What is the GAC? What problem does it solve?

Each computer where the common language runtime is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. The global assembly cache stores assemblies that are to be shared by several applications on the computer. This area is typically the folder under windows or winnt in the machine. 

All the assemblies that need to be shared across applications need to be done through the Global assembly Cache only. However it is not necessary to install assemblies into the global assembly cache to make them accessible to COM interop or unmanaged code.

There are several ways to deploy an assembly into the global assembly cache: 

• Use an installer designed to work with the global assembly cache. This is the preferred option for installing assemblies into the global assembly cache. 

• Use a developer tool called the Global Assembly Cache tool (Gacutil.exe), provided by the .NET Framework SDK. 

• Use Windows Explorer to drag assemblies into the cache. 

GAC solves the problem of DLL Hell and DLL versioning. Unlike earlier situations, GAC can hold two assemblies of the same name but different version. This ensures that the applications which access a particular assembly continue to access the same assembly even if another version of that assembly is installed on that machine.

 

33. What is an Asssembly Qualified Name? Is it a filename? How is it different?

An assembly qualified name isn't the filename of the assembly; it's the internal name of the assembly combined with the assembly version, culture, and public key, thus making it unique.

e.g. (""System.Xml.XmlDocument, System.Xml, Version=1.0.3300.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089"")

 

34. How is a strongly-named assembly different from one that isn’t strongly-named?

Strong names are used to enable the stricter naming requirements associated with shared assemblies. These strong names are created by a .NET utility – sn.exe

Strong names have three goals: 

• Name uniqueness. Shared assemblies must have names that are globally unique. 

• Prevent name spoofing. Developers don't want someone else releasing a subsequent version of one of your assemblies and falsely claim it came from you, either by accident or intentionally. 

• Provide identity on reference. When resolving a reference to an assembly, strong names are used to guarantee the assembly that is loaded came from the expected publisher. 

Strong names are implemented using standard public key cryptography. In general, the process works as follows: The author of an assembly generates a key pair (or uses an existing one), signs the file containing the manifest with the private key, and makes the public key available to callers. When references are made to the assembly, the caller records the public key corresponding to the private key used to generate the strong name. 

Weak named assemblies are not suitable to be added in GAC and shared. It is essential for an assembly to be strong named.

Strong naming prevents tampering and enables assemblies to be placed in the GAC alongside other assemblies of the same name


35. Explain the importance and use of each, Version, Culture and PublicKeyToken for an assembly. 

This three alongwith name of the assembly provide a strong name or fully qualified name to the assembly.

When a assebly is referenced with all three:

PublicKeyToken: Each assembly can have a public key embedded in its manifest that identifies the developer. This ensures that once the assembly ships, no one can modify the code or other resources contained in the assembly.

Culture: Specifies which culture the assembly supports

Version: The version number of the assembly.It is of the following form major.minor.build.revision.

 

36. What is difference between MetaData and Manifest?

Metadata and Manifest forms an integral part of an assembly( dll / exe ) in .net framework . Out of which Metadata is a mandatory component , which as the name suggests gives the details about various components of IL code viz : Methods , properties , fields , class etc. 

Essentially Metadata maintains details in form of tables like Methods Metadata tables , Properties Metadata tables , which maintains the list of given type and other details like access specifier , return type etc.

Now Manifest is a part of metadata only , fully called as “manifest metadata tables” , it contains the details of the references needed by the assembly of any other external assembly / type , it could be a custom assembly or standard System namespace .

Now for an assembly that can independently exists and used in the .Net world both the things ( Metadata with Manifest ) are mandatory , so that it can be fully described assembly and can be ported anywhere without any system dependency . Essentially .Net framework can read all assembly related information from assembly itself at runtime .

But for .Net modules , that can’t be used independently , until they are being packaged as a part of an assembly , they don’t contain Manifest but their complete structure is defined by their respective metadata .

Ultimately . .Net modules use Manifest Metadata tables of parent assembly which contain them .

 

37. How do assemblies find each other?

By searching directory paths. There are several factors which can affect the path (such as the AppDomain host, and application configuration files), but for private assemblies the search path is normally the application's directory and its sub-directories. For shared assemblies, the search path is normally same as the private assembly path plus the shared assembly cache.

 

38. How does assembly versioning work?

Each assembly has a version number called the compatibility version. Also each reference to an assembly (from another assembly) includes both the name and version of the referenced assembly.The version number has four numeric parts (e.g. 5.5.2.33). Assemblies with either of the first two parts different are normally viewed as incompatible. If the first two parts are the same, but the third is different, the assemblies are deemed as 'maybe compatible'. If only the fourth part is different, the assemblies are deemed compatible. However, this is just the default guideline - it is the version policy that decides to what extent these rules are enforced. The version policy can be specified via the application configuration file.

 

38. What is garbage collection?

Garbage collection is a system whereby a run-time component takes responsibility for managing the lifetime of objects and the heap memory that they occupy. This concept is not new to .NET - Java and many other languages/runtimes have used garbage collection for some time.

 

40. Why doesn't the .NET runtime offer deterministic destruction?

Because of the garbage collection algorithm. The .NET garbage collector works by periodically running through a list of all the objects that are currently being referenced by an application. All the objects that it doesn't find during this search are ready to be destroyed and the memory reclaimed. The implication of this algorithm is that the runtime doesn't get notified immediately when the final reference on an object goes away - it only finds out during the next sweep of the heap.

Futhermore, this type of algorithm works best by performing the garbage collection sweep as rarely as possible. Normally heap exhaustion is the trigger for a collection sweep.

 

41. Is the lack of deterministic destruction in .NET a problem?

It's certainly an issue that affects component design. If you have objects that maintain expensive or scarce resources (e.g. database locks), you need to provide some way for the client to tell the object to release the resource when it is done. Microsoft recommend that you provide a method called Dispose() for this purpose. However, this causes problems for distributed objects - in a distributed system who calls the Dispose() method? Some form of reference-counting or ownership-management mechanism is needed to handle distributed objects - unfortunately the runtime offers no help with this. 

 

42. What is the use of JIT ? JIT (Just - In - Time) is a compiler which converts MSIL code to 

Because the common language runtime supplies a JIT compiler for each supported CPU architecture, developers can write a set of MSIL that can be JIT-compiled and run on computers with different architectures. However, your managed code will run only on a specific operating system if it calls platform-specific native APIs, or a platform-specific class library.

JIT compilation takes into account the fact that some code might never get called during execution. Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls. The loader creates and attaches a stub to each of a type's methods when the type is loaded. On the initial call to the method, the stub passes control to the JIT compiler, which converts the MSIL for that method into native code and modifies the stub to direct execution to the location of the native code. Subsequent calls of the JIT-compiled method proceed directly to the native code that was previously generated, reducing the time it takes to JIT-compile and run the code.

 

43.What is delay signing? 

Delay signing allows you to place a shared assembly in the GAC by signing the assembly with just the public key. This allows the assembly to be signed with the private key at a later stage, when the development process is complete and the component or assembly is ready to be deployed. This process enables developers to work with shared assemblies as if they were strongly named, and it secures the private key of the signature from being accessed at different stages of development. 

 

44. What’s the difference between Response.Write() and Response.Output.Write()?

Response.Write() and Response.Output.Write() both are used for print output on the screen.

But their are is a difference between both of them

1. Response.Output.Write() is allows us to print formatted output but Response.Write() can't allows the formatted output.

Example:

Response.Output.Write(".Net{0},"ASP"); // Its write

Response.Write(".Net{0},"ASP"); // Its Wrong

2. As Per Asp.Net 3.5, Response.Write() Has 4 overloads, with Response.Output.Write()

has 17 overloads . 


45. When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?

After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.

 

46. What’s a bubbled event?

When you have a complex control, like DataGrid, writing an event processing routine for each object (cell, button, row, etc.) is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their event handlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its constituents. 

 

47. What data types do the RangeValidator control support?

Integer, String, and Date. 

 

48. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?

Server-side code executes on the server.  Client-side code executes in the client's browser.

 

49. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?

The answer is server-side code since code-behind is executed on the server.  However, during the code-behind's execution on the server, it can render client-side code such as JavaScript to be processed in the clients browser.  But just to be clear, code-behind executes on the server, thus making it server-side code. 

 

50. Should user input data validation occur server-side or client-side?  Why?

All user input data validation should occur on the server at a minimum.  Additionally, client-side validation can be performed where deemed appropriate and feasable to provide a richer, more responsive experience for the user. 

 

51. Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?

Valid answers are:

•  A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.

•  A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.

•  Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.

•  There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.

•  DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.

•  You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.

•  Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources. 

 

52. What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?

This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects. 

 

53. Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?

When you want to inherit (use the functionality of) another class. Example: With a base class named Employee, a Manager class could be derived from the Employee base class.

 

54. Whats MSIL, and why should developers need an appreciation of it if at all?

MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL.  MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer. 

 

55. Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?

The Fill() method. 

 

56. Can you edit data in the Repeater control?

No, it just reads the information from its data source.

 

57. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?

ItemTemplate. 

 

58. How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?

Use the AlternatingItemTemplate. 

 

59. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from a data source to the Repeater control?

You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind method.

 

60. Name two properties common in every validation control?

ControlToValidate property and Text property. 

 

61. Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?

CompareValidator control. 

 

62. How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?

It can contain many classes.

 

63. What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?

Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page.  This includes postbacks (to the same page). 

 

64. What does the "EnableViewState" property do?  Why would I want it on or off?

It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks.  It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser.  When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate. 

 

65. What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?

ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management.  In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server.  This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server.  Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source.  The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service.  Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.

 

66. What is the difference between Value Types and Reference Types? 

Value Types uses Stack to store the data where as the later uses the Heap to store the data.

 

67. What are user controls and custom controls?

Custom controls:  A control authored by a user or a third-party software vendor that does not belong to   the .NET Framework class library. This is a generic term that includes user controls. A  custom server control is used in Web Forms (ASP.NET pages). A custom client control is used  in Windows Forms applications.

User Controls: In ASP.NET: A user-authored server control that enables an ASP.NET page to be re-used   as a server control. An ASP.NET user control is authored declaratively  and persisted as a  text file with an .ascx extension. The ASP.NET page framework compiles a user control on  the fly to a class that derives from the        System.Web.UI.UserControl class.

 

68. What are the validation controls?

A set of server controls included with ASP.NET that test user input in HTML and Web server  controls for programmer-defined requirements. Validation controls perform input checking in server code. If the user is working with a browser that supports DHTML, the validation  controls can also perform validation using client script.

 

69. Where do you add an event handler?

It's the Attributesproperty, the Add function inside that property. 

e.g. btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onMouseOver","someClientCode();")

 

70. What data type does the RangeValidator control support?

Integer,String and Date.

 

71. What is the difference between a DataReader and a DataSet? 

DataReader:

1. DatReader works on a Connection oriented architecture.

2. DataReader is read only, forward only. It reads one record at atime. After DataReader finishes reading the current record, it moves to the next record. There is no way you can go back to the previous record. So using a DataReader you read in forward direction only.

3. Updations are not possible with DataReader.

4. As DataReader is read only, forward only it is much faster than a DataSet.

DataSet:

1. DataSet works on disconnected architecture.

2. Using a DataSet you can move in both directions. DataSet is bi directional.

3. Database can be updated from a DataSet.

4. DataSet is slower than DataReader.

 

72. How can we load multiple tables in a Dataset?

objCommand.CommandText = "Table1"

objDataAdapter.Fill(objDataSet, "Table1")

objCommand.CommandText = "Table2"

objDataAdapter.Fill(objDataSet, "Table2")

Above is a sample code, which shows how to load multiple “Data Table” objects in one “Dataset” object. Sample code shows two tables “Table1” and “Table2” in object ObjDataSet.

lstdata.DataSource = objDataSet.Tables("Table1").DefaultView

In order to refer “Table1” Data Table, use Tables collection of Datasets and the Default view object will give you the necessary output.

 

73. How can we add relation between tables in a Dataset?

Dim objRelation As DataRelation

objRelation=New

DataRelation("CustomerAddresses",objDataSet.Tables("Customer").Columns("Custid")

,objDataSet.Tables("Addresses").Columns("Custid_fk"))

objDataSet.Relations.Add(objRelation)

Relations can be added between “Data Table” objects using the “Data Relation” object. Above sample, code is trying to build a relationship between “Customer” and “Addresses” “Data table” using “Customer Addresses” “Data Relation” object.

 

74. What is the use of Command Builder?

Command Builder builds “Parameter” objects automatically. Below is a simple code, which uses command builder to load its parameter objects.

Dim pobjCommandBuilder As New OleDbCommandBuilder(pobjDataAdapter)

pobjCommandBuilder.DeriveParameters(pobjCommand)

Be careful while using “Derive Parameters” method as it needs an extra trip to the Data store, which can be very inefficient.

 

75. What are the two fundamental objects in ADO.NET?

Data reader and Dataset are the two fundamental objects in ADO.NET.

 

76. What are major difference between classic ADO and ADO.NET?

Following are some major differences between both :- 

• In ADO we have recordset and in ADO.NET we have dataset.

• In recordset we can only have one table. If we want to accommodate more than one tables we need to do inner join and fill the recordset. Dataset can have multiple tables.

• All data persist in XML as compared to classic ADO where data persisted in Binary format also.

 

77. What is the use of data adapter?

These objects connect one or more Command objects to a Dataset object. They provide logic that would get data from the data store and populates the tables in the Dataset, or pushes the changes in the Dataset back into the data store.

• An OleDbDataAdapter object is used with an OLE-DB provider

• A SqlDataAdapter object uses Tabular Data Services with MS SQL Server.

 

78. What is Dataset object?

The Dataset provides the basis for disconnected storage and manipulation of relational data. We fill it from a data store, work with it while disconnected from that data store, then reconnect and flush changes back to the data store if required.

 

79. How can we save all data from dataset?

Dataset has “Accept Changes” method, which commits all the changes since last time “Accept changes” has been executed.

Note :- This book does not have any sample of Acceptchanges. We leave that to readers as homework sample. But yes from interview aspect that will be enough.

 

80. What are the 3 major types of connection objects in ADO.NET? 

OleDbConnection object : Use an OleDbConnection object to connect to a Microsoft Access or third-party database, such as MySQL. OLE database connections use the OleDbDataAdapter object to perform commands and return data.

SqlConnection object : Use a SqlConnection object to connect to a Microsoft SQL Server database. SQL database connections use the SqlDataAdapter object to perform commands and return data.

OracleConnection object : Use an OracleConnection object to connect to Oracle databases. Oracle database connections use the OracleDataAdapter object to perform commands and return data. This connection object was introduced in Microsoft .NET Framework version 1.1.

 

81. can we connect two dataadapters to same data source using single connection at same time?

yes,we can connect two dataadapters to same datasource using single connection at same time.

There is a technology in ado.net 2.0 called MARS usinng Mars in connection string we can do it.

for eg:

cn.ConnectionString = "server=(local); database=employee; integrated security=sspi; MultipleActiveResultSets=True";

 

82. What is Delegate?

Delegate is an important element of C# and is extensively used in every type of .NET application. A delegate is a class whose object (delegate object) can store a set of references to methods.


ASP.Net Multiple choice Questions & Answers
ASP.Net Interview Questions & Answers