Dear Readers, Welcome to SAP BW Interview Questions and Answers have been designed specially to get you acquainted with the nature of questions you may encounter during your Job interview for the subject of SAP BW. These SAP BW Questions are very important for campus placement test and job interviews. As per my experience good interviewers hardly plan to ask any particular questions during your Job interview and these model questions are asked in the online technical test and interview of many IT companies.
A) Rate your level of experience with BEx and the rationale for you’re self-rating
B) How many queries have you developed? :
C) How many reports have you written?
D) How many workbooks have you developed?
E) Experience with jump targets (OLTP, use jump target)
F) Describe experience with BW-compatible ETL tools (e.g. Ascential)
2) What is SAP BW/BI? What is the purpose of SAP BW/BI?
SAP BW/BI stands for Business Information Warehouse, also known as business intelligence. For any business, data reporting, analyses and interpretation of business data is very crucial for running business smoothly and making decision. SAP BW/BI manage the data and enables to react quickly and in line with the market. It enables the user to analyze data from operative SAP applications as well as from other business.
1. How many InfoCubes have you implemented from start to end by yourself (not with a team)?
2. Of these Cubes, how many characteristics (including attributes) did the largest one have.
3. How much customization was done on the InfoCubes have you implemented?
Data integrity is to eliminate duplicate entries in the database.
Table partition is done to manage the huge data to improve the efficiency of the applications. The partition is based on 0CALMONTH and 0FISCPER. There are two type of partitioning that is done
a) Database partitioning
b) Logical partitioning
Data flows from a transactional system to the analytical system (BW). DS ( Data Service) on the transactional system needs to be replicated on BW side and attached to infosource and update rules respectively.
1. How many standard BW extractors have you implemented?
2. How many custom BW extractors have you implemented?
A) Describe your level of expertise and the rationale for your self-rating (experience with macros, pivot tables and formatting)B)
‘Operational Data Store’ or ‘ODS’ is used for detailed storage of data. It is a BW architectural component that appears between PSA ( Persistent Staging Area) and infocubes, it allows BEX (Business Explorer) reporting. It is primarily used for detail reporting rather than dimensional analysis, and it is not based on the star schema. ODS (Operational Data Store) objects do not aggregate data as infocubes do. To load the data into an IDS object, new records are inserted, existing records are updated, or old records are deleted as specified by RECORDMODE value.
The difference between ODS and Info-cubes are
a) ODS has a key while Info-cubes does not have any key
b) ODS contains detailed level data while Info-cube contains refined data
c) Info-cube follows Star Schema (16 dimensions) while ODS is a flat file structure
d) There can be two or more ODS under a cube, so cube can contain combined data or data that is derived from other fields in the ODS
A dimension in BW is a collection of reference information about a measurable event in data warehousing. In this context, events are known as “facts”. For example, a customer dimension’s attributes could include first and last name, gender, birth date etc. To optimize the dimensions, do not add most dynamic characteristics into the same dimension and make the dimension smaller. Also, define as many dimensions as possible, and the dimension should not exceed 20% of the fact table size.
A) Partitioning is the method of dividing a table (either column wise or row wise) based on the fields available which would enable a quick reference for the intended values of the fields in the table. By partitioning an infocube, the reporting performance is enhanced because it is easier to search in smaller tables. Also table maintenance becomes easier.
A) Rollup creates aggregates in an infocube whenever new data is loaded.
A) The inputs for an infoset are ODS objects and InfoObjects (with master data or text).
A) When an InfoObject, InfoCube or ODS object is created, BW maintains a saved version of that object but does not make it available for use. Once the object is activated, BW creates an active version that is available for use.
A) The load performance of LO extraction is better than that of LIS. In LIS two tables are used for delta management that is cumbersome. In LO only one delta queue is used for delta management.
A) It is the InfoObject for Request id. OREQUID enables BW to distinguish between different data records.
A) Yes. Through event handling.
A) It is an IDOC parameter source system. This table contains the details of the data transfer like the source system of the data, data packet size, maximum number of lines in a data packet, etc. The data packet size can be changed through the control parameters option on SBIW i.e., the contents of this table can be changed.
A) A Start routine is a user exit that can be executed before the update rule starts to allow more complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. The start routine has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in a global data structure. You can access this structure or table in the other routines.
A) IDOCs are used for communication between logical systems like SAP R/3, R/2 and non-SAP systems using ALE and for communication between an SAP R/3 system and a non-SAP system. In BW, an IDOC is a data container for data exchange between SAP systems or between SAP systems and external systems based on an EDI interface. IDOCs support limited file size of 1000 bytes. So IDOCs are not used when loading data into PSA since data there is more detailed. It is used when the file size is lesser than 1000 bytes.
A) For easier parallel search and load of data.
A) BW has a better performance advantage over reporting in R/3. For a huge amount of data, the R/3 reporting tool is at a serious disadvantage because R/3 is modeled as an OLTP system and is good for transaction processing rather than analytical processing.
A) BW statistics cube contains the data related to the reporting performance and the data loads of all the InfoCubes in the BW system.
A) It allows us to select a particular value of a particular field and delete its contents.
A) Data is stored in the same cube.
A) Aggregation improves the performance in reporting.
A) The transaction data gets loaded and the master data fields remain blank.
A) One would have to see if the InfoCubes are used individually. If these cubes are often used individually, then it is better to go for a multiprovider with many cubes since the reporting would be faster for an individual cube query rather than for a big cube with lot of data.
A) Maximum of 98 levels.
A) The open hub service enables you to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external data marts, analytical applications, and other applications. With this, you can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for the export of data is the Infospoke. Using this, you can define the object from which the data comes and into which target it is transferred. Through the open hub service, SAP BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.
A) It reconstructs the deleted requests from the infocube. If a request has been deleted and later someone wants the data records of that request to be added to the infocube, one can use the reconstruction tab to add those records. It goes to the PSA and brings the data to the infocube.
A) Index created in addition to the primary index of the infocube. When you activate a table in the ABAP Dictionary, an index is created on the primary key fields of the table. Further indexes created for the table are called secondary indexes.
A) DB connect is database connecting piece of program. It is used in connecting third party tools with BW for reporting purpose.
A) No We cannot, “NO hierarchies in CO/PA?.
A) The CO/PA partitioning is used to decrease package size (eg: company code)
A) It is a program in R/3 source system that schedules batch jobs to update extract structure to data source collectively.
Designing of data base is done by using modelling. The design of DB (Data Base) depends on the schema, and schema is defined as the representation of tables and their relationship.
A) By using the transaction LISTSCHEMA we can navigate the tables.
A) An InfoSet Query is a query using flat tables.
A) Thro DataMarts data can be loaded from one InfoCube to another InfoCube.
Star Schema comprises of Fact tables and Dimension Tables, while the table that consists the Master data are kept in separate tables. These separate tables for Master data are referred as Extended Star Schema.
A) In Datasource we define the data from diff source sys,where as in extract struct it contains the replicated data of datasource n where in we can define extract rules, n transfer rulesB) Extract Structure is a record layout of InfoObjects.C) Extract Structure is created on SAP BW system.
There are 4 types
A) Referential integrity is the property that guarantees that values from one column depend on values from another column.This property is enforced through integrity constraints.
Asynchronous Updating (V2 Update)
With this update type, the document update is made separately from the statistics update. A termination of the statistics update has NO influence on the document update (see V1 Update).
Radio button: Updating in U3 update program
Asynchronous Updating (V3 Update)
With this update type, updating is made separately from the document update. The difference between this update type and the V2 Update lies,however, with the time schedule. If the V3 update is active, then the update can be executed at a later time.
In contrast to V1 and V2 Updates, no single documents are updated. The V3 update is, therefore, also described as a collective update.
a) RSPC: Process Chain Maintenance
b) RSPC1: Process Chain Display
c) RSPCM: Monitor daily process chains
d) RZ20: To see log for process chains
The sets of cubes delivered by SAP are used to measure performance for query, loading data etc. B/W statistics as the name suggests is useful in showing data about the costs associated with the B/W queries, OLAP, aggregative data etc. It is useful to measure the performance of how quickly the queries are calculated or how quickly the data is loaded into BW.
A) An ERD(Entity Relation Diagram) that can be used to generate a physical database.
B) It is an high level data model.
C) It is a schematic that shows all the entities within the scope of integration and the direct relationship between the entities.
Data target administration task includes
a) Delete Index
b) Generate Index
c) Construct database statistics
d) Complete deletion of data target
e) Compression of the info-cube etc.
Three options are available for delta management with flat files
1) Full upload
2) New status for changed records
3) Additive delta
To create classes or nodes for BW you have to follow the following steps,
a) Click on post-processing of data sources
b) Execute/Click on IMG activity
c) Select BW or any desired node
d) Click on context menu
e) Press F6 or select “Create node”
After following these steps, a new dialog box will appear, where you can insert your node or class for BW.
To define data aggregation hierarchy can be used. It is a logical structure that use ordered levels as a means of organizing data. For instance, by using time dimension hierarchy, it is possible to aggregate data from the month level to the quarter level to the year level.
To debug errors in SAP GUI you have to follow the path
a) Run Bexanalyzer
b) Business Explorer menu item
c) Installation check
This will show an excel sheet with start button, on clicking on it, it will verify the GUI installation and if there is any error you can fix it or either re-install it.
A) Process of finding hidden patterns and relationships in the data.B) With typical data analysis requirements fulfilled by data warehouses,business users have an idea of what information they want to see.C) Some opportunities embody data discovery requirements,where the business user wants to correlate sets of data to determine anomalies or patterns in the data.
A) The georelevant data can be displayed and evaluated on a map with the help of the BEx Map.
59) Hope you have worked on enhancements and on which userexit you worked can you explain?A) Extended the Data source 0MATERIAL_ATTR , 0PLANT_ATTR, 0MAT_PLANT_ATTR for Master Data load from R/3 to BW. Edited User exit EXIT_SAPLRSAP_002 to populate Master Data for extended fields and EXIT_SAPLRSAP_001 for transaction data to extract from R/3 to BW
A) InfoSet is special kind of InfoProvider. It is used to report by Joining ODS Objects and InfoObjects. InfoSets have been used in the Business Information Warehouse for InfoObjects (master data), ODS objects, and joins for these objects. The InfoSet Query can be used to carry out tabular (flat) Reporting on these InfoSets.
A) Aggregates are like indices to database tables. They are rolled up data on few characteristics on which report is run frequently. They are created for performance improvement of reporting. If a report is used very extensively and its performance is slow then we can create aggregate on the characteristics used in the report, so that when the report runs OLAP processer selects data from aggregate instead of cube.
A) We had collected data from the user and created HLD(High level Design document) and we analyzed to find the source for the data. Then datamodels were done indicating dataflow, lookups. While designing the datamodel considerations were given to use existing objects(like ODS and Cube) not storing redundant data, volume of data, Batch dependency.
A) Cubes are best for reporting to queries. It runs faster. In ODS we can have only simple reports. If we query based on Nonkey fields(Data fields) in ODS then, report runs slower. But in ODS we can overwrite, non key fields. But we can not overwrite in Cube. This is one of the disadvantage in Cube.
A) Please look at Business content cubes and BW documentation on them to answer this question.
A) When transactional data is pulled from R3 system instead of pulling all the data daily(Instead of having full load), if we pull only the changed records, or newly added records, the load on the system will be very less. So where ever it is possible we have to go for delta load than full load.
A) Hierarchies are organizing data in a structured way. For example BOM(Bill of material) can be configured as hierarchies.
A) In BW the information is stored as SIDs. SIDs are Auto generated number assigned to each characteristic value when they are uploaded. Search on Numeric character is always faster than Alpha characters and hence SIDs are assigned for each characteristic values.
A) If we have 0Calmonth or 0Fiscper as time characteristic, then we can partition the fact table physically. Table portioning has to be supported by the Database. Oracle, Informix, IBM DB2/390 supports table partitioning. SAP DB, Microsoft SQL Server IBM DB2/400 does not support table portioning. Table partitioning helps to run the report faster as data is stored in the relevant partition.
B) In Update rule routine, If we want to return multiple records, instead of single value, we can use this return table.
A) We had legacy system called CAM. CAM system had Open order information which was full load every day to OM Schedule line ODS. CAM system was connected to R3 through DB connect.
A) ODS Object has three tables called New, Active and Change log. As soon as new data comes into ODS, that is stored in ODS. When it is activated, the new data is written to Active table. Change is written in the change log.
A) In start routine is used for mass processing of records. In start routine all the records of data package is available for processing. So we can process all these records together in start routine. In one of scenario, we wanted to apply size % to the forecast data. For example if material M1 is forecasted to say 100 nos in May. Then after applying size %(Small 20%, Medium 40%, Large 20%, Extra Large 20%), we wanted to have 4 records against one single record that is coming in the info package. This is achieved in start routine.
A) To be discussed(TBD).
A) Informatica, ACTA, COGNOS, Business Objects are other ETL tools.
A) One can display the elements of characteristics in hierarchy form and evaluate query data for the individual hierarchy levels in the Business Explorer (in Web applications or in the BEx Analyzer).
A) It is used in Delta Management. ODS uses ORECORDMODE info object for delta load. ORECORDMODE has values as X,D,R. In delta data load X means rows to be skipped, D & R for delete and Remove of rows.
A) An organizational structure that combines controlling areas together in the same way as controlling areas group companies together.
A) No. An ODS object contains key fields (for example, document number/item) and data fields that can also contain character fields (for example, order status, customer).
A) BAPI, ALE => set of programs which will Extract data from data sources. BW connects SAP systems(R/3 or BW) and flat files via ALE. BW connects with non SAP systems via BAPI.
A) A Compound attribute differentiates a characteristic to make the characteristic uniquely identifiable. For example, in a Plant, there can be some similar products manufactured. (Plant A-- Soap,Paste,Lotion; plant B--Soap, paste, Lotion) In this case Plant A and Plant B should be made unique. So the characteristics can be compounded to make them unique.
A) Bex Analyzer is connected with OLAP Processor. OLE DB Connectivity makes Bex Analyzer connects with BIW.
A) Internally allocates space in database. If needed table resides in one or few partitions, then only these partitions will be selected and examined by SQL statement, therby significantly reducing I/O volume.
A) If transfer rules are not defined for Info objects, then traffic lights will not be green.
A) Query performance will be good with Infocube. Infocube has multidimensional model where as ODS is a flat table. Aggregates and Multi provider can be built upon Infocube, which will enhance the Query performance. Aggregates and mutiproviders cannot be built on ODS.
A) ODS has three database tables. New Table, Active Table and Change Log Table. Initially new data are loaded and their traces are kept in Change log table. When another set of data comes, it actually compares with change log and transfers the data (delta data) into active table and also notes in Change log. Everytime the tables are compared and data is written into the targets.