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If the program contains the same or similar blocks of statements or it is required to process the same function several times, we can avoid redundancy by using modularization techniques. By modularizing the ABAP/4 programs we make them easy to read and improve their structure. Modularized programs are also easier to maintain and to update.
• Source code module.
• By defining Macros.
• By creating include programs in the library.
No. If it is required to pass data to and from modules it is required to use subroutines or function modules.
Subroutines are program modules, which can be called from other ABAP/4 programs or within the same program.
• Internal Subroutines: The source code of the internal subroutines will be in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call).
• External Subroutines: The source code of the external subroutines will be in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure.
Formal Parameters: Parameters, which are defined during the definition of subroutine with the FORM statement.
Actual Parameters: Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement.
• Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines.
• Output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.
• Calling by reference: During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter has no memory of its own, and we work with the field of the calling program within the subroutine. If we change the formal parameter, the field contents in the calling program also changes.
• Calling by value: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have memory of their own. Changes to the formal parameters have no effect on the actual parameters.
• Calling by value and result: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters. The formal parameters have their own memory space. Changes to the formal parameters are copied to the actual parameters at the end of the subroutine.
Itab is used in the form and endform if the internal table is passed with a header line.
Work Area. This is required as the Work Area is the interface for transferring data to and from the table.
In contrast to normal subroutines function modules have uniquely defined interface. Declaring data as common parts is not possible for function modules. Function modules are stored in a central library.
A function group is a collection of logically related modules that share global data with each other. All the modules in the group are included in the same main program. When an ABAP/4 program contains a CALL FUNCTION statement, the system loads the entire function group in with the program code at runtime. Every function module belongs to a function group.
During a call by reference damage or loss of data is not restricted to the subroutine, but will instantly lead to changes to the original data objects.
It is an SAP provided procedure for updating a database.
The system performs the module processing asynchronously. Instead of carrying out the call immediately, the system waits until the next database update is triggered with the 'COMMIT WORK' command.
The raising exception determines whether the calling program will handle the exception itself or leave the exception to the system.
• The lines of an internal table always have the same structure. By using extract datasets, you can handle groups of data with different structure and get statistical figures from the grouped data.
• You have to define the structure of the internal table at the beginning. You need not define the structure of the extract dataset.
• In contrast to internal tables, the system partly compresses exact datasets when storing them. This reduces the storage space required.
• Internal tables require special work area for interface whereas extract datasets do not need a special work area for interface.
The header field group is a special field group for the sort criteria. The system automatically prefixes any other field groups with the header field group.
Yes. But it leads to unnecessary data redundancy.
It defines the fields of a field group.
The data is written to virtual memory by extract commands.
False. It causes runtime errors.
The SAP profile parameter, which determines this help file, is DIR_SORTTMP.